ICE- Integrative Carnivore EcoPhysiology

The Williams ICE Lab is dedicated to studying the comparative ecophysiology of the largest and most endangered mammals to walk on land and swim in the oceans. Specifically, Dr. Williams and her students investigate the energetic, thermal, cardiovascular, and biomechanical biology of apex predators including African lions, pumas, tropical dolphins and seals, sea otters, and polar-living wolves, whales, bears and seals. By examining the functional relationships between animals and their environment, we strive to understand the ecological significance of a species and the physiological adaptations necessary for survival in a constantly changing world.


WATCH: 30 years of Conservation Science in 300 Seconds



African lion (Panthera leo)
The felid studies in our laboratory are focused on African lions in Kenya and Pumas in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The overall goal of these studies is to understand human- felid conflicts.


Grey wolf (Canis lupus)
We  investigate free-ranging behaviors and energetic demands of canids such as wolves in order to provide both researchers and wildlife managers with a greater understanding of the links between carnivore habitat, prey requirements, and movement patterns.


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We are conducting research on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our goal is to investigate the effects of declines in Arctic sea ice on polar bear behaviors and energy demands.


The marine mammal program is conducting comparative studies around the world on cetaceans (dolphins, narwhals), pinnipeds (Weddell seals, Hawaiian monk seals), and sea otters. Our goal is to examine the physiological and behavioral responses to anthropogenic disturbance.

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